There are a wide variety of CCTV cameras available, with designs using variations in shape, size, or camera type to achieve a particular goal. Some security cameras come in dome shapes, while others use the more standard rectangular shape that is widely recognized. One important factor to consider is whether the security camera uses visible light or infrared to capture images, as the two are used in drastically different scenarios. IR designs are great for keeping a location secure at night, or in low-light conditions, because they don't use visible light to create an image, they use the infrared radiation given off by a person's body to detect and build an image of their surroundings. Some CCTV systems use what are called IP cameras, which can broadcast their feeds over the internet, making it possible to see what's going on from all over the world.
CCTV (中央电视台) broadcast its first program on 2 September 1958. Due to increasing demands, it soon launched its second channel in 1963 and third channel in 1969, followed by the first simultaneous satellite broadcasts nationwide in 1972. Starting from 1 May 1973, Peking Television began broadcasting experimentally in color on its second channel every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday using the PAL-D system, and fully converted to color broadcasting by 1977. The network changed its name to CCTV on 1 May 1978.
Experiments in the UK during the 1970s and 1980s, including outdoor CCTV in Bournemouth in 1985, led to several larger trial programs later that decade. The first use by local government was in King's Lynn, Norfolk, in 1987. These were deemed successful in the government report "CCTV: Looking Out For You", issued by the Home Office in 1994, and paved the way for an increase in the number of CCTV systems installed. Today, systems cover most town and city centres, and many stations, car-parks and estates.
However, in any situation where standard-definition video cameras are used, the quality is going to be poor because the maximum pixel resolution of the image chips in most of these devices is 320,000 pixels (analogue quality is measured in TV lines but the results are the same); they generally capture horizontal and vertical fields of lines and blend them together to make a single frame; the maximum frame rate is normally 30 frames per second.
In the United Kingdom the Data Protection Act 1998 imposes legal restrictions on the uses of CCTV recordings and mandates the registration of CCTV systems with the Data Protection Agency. In 2004, the successor to the Data Protection Agency, the Information Commissioner's Office clarified that this required registration of all CCTV systems with the Commissioner, and prompt deletion of archived recordings. However, subsequent case law (Durant vs. FSA) limited the scope of the protection provided by this law, and not all CCTV systems are currently regulated. Nonetheless, private sector personnel in the UK who operate or monitor CCTV devices or systems are considered security guards and have been made subject to state licensing.
The range of a wireless surveillance camera, as in the distance it can transmit its signal, is anywhere between 100 and 500 feet, depending whether the signal is transmitting through open space or attempting to transmit between buildings or hills. Adding antennae can increase transmission range. Range of visibility is thing, and depends on the quality of camera. Cameras can have long-range visibility of 1,000 feet or more, although the quality depends on features such as optical zoom lens, night-vision capabilities, high definition PPF (pixels per foot), and long-range WiFi.
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I actually have two of these systems, and intentionally left them off my home network because I wanted to record an event and they performed flawlessly. I could see all 4 cameras on each system using the included monitor and the recordings were saved to the internal hard drive. Only after the event did I reposition the location of the cameras and then plugged the monitor/base station into my home router so that I could check in while away from home. All that was required was finding the IP address of my home router and then typing that into the setup prompts on the monitor/ base station.
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